67 Bricks Ltd

67 Bricks works with publishers who want to enrich their content to make it more structured, granular, flexible and reusable.

We help publishers develop content enrichment processes, systems and delivery channels that support more agile and flexible production workflows, increase the value of legacy and new content, increase revenues from existing channels, enable better reuse of content and deliver revenues from new digital products.

Knowledge Models Used

Because we support different publishers, we work with a wide variety of knowledge models appropriate to our clients.

Contact

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Thesaurus of Psychological Index Term®

SHORT DESCRIPTION/ABOUT

The Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms® is the controlled vocabulary used by APA’s professional indexers to index all of APA’s databases:  PsycINFO®, PsycARTICLES®, PsycBOOKS®, PsycEXTRA®, PsycTESTS®, PsycTHERAPY®,  and sycCRITIQUES®.  With the wide variety of concepts and vocabulary used in the psychological literature, search and retrieval of specific psychological concepts is virtually impossible without the controlled vocabulary of the Thesaurus. It provides a way of structuring the  diverse concepts in the field of psychology to assist in the creation of efficient and consistent indexing.   The Thesaurus , first published in 1974, has an influential role in research because it reflects the most current trends found in the behavioral and social science literature.  The Thesaurus can help authenticate the use of terms as they become accepted nomenclature.

URL OF KNOWLEDGE MODEL:

OWNED/DEVELOPED BY:

  1. Name of Owner: The American Psychological Association
  2. Name of Developer: Ian Galloway
  3. Technical Contact: igalloway [at] apa.org
  4. License Contact: Jan Fleming, jfleming [at] apa.org

HOW IS THIS KM APPLIED?

  1. Manually | Auto-tagging software | Both
  2. By Authors | Editorial Staff | Professional indexers

HOW THIS IS KM USED?

  1. Direct Bibliographic Search | Indirect (e.g., used to expose content resulting from other user actions)
  2. Display | Grouping of results
  3. People search | Author profiles | Publication profile

DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRENT USE CASE(S) OF THE KM:

The Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms is currently used primarily to index over 3.7 million records that can be found in PsycINFO.

DESCRIPTION OF FUTURE/POTENTIAL USE CASES OF THE KM (NOT YET REALIZED)

Development of an ontology based on the structure and concepts found in the Thesaurus is currently underway.

WHAT ARE THE MAIN GOALS FOR USING THIS KM?

  1. Enhance UX
  2. Increase Search Engine Ranking
  3. Increase time user spends on site
  4. Increase traffic
  5. Increase downloads
  6. …)

RATIONALE FOR KM VS OTHER MEANS OF SEARCHING AND BROWSING?

The sheer volume of APA’s databases means that researchers need a pragmatic and efficient way to discover the precise records they are seeking. The Thesaurus provides the most targeted way find the major concepts within our database records.  The Thesaurus has been developed specifically to work with the interdisciplinary nature of the psychological literature. In conjunction with faceted searching, researchers can quickly sift through over 3 million records dating back to the 19th century with confidence.

IS THE KM BEING ACTIVELY DEVELOPED?

Yes, internally

LICENSE INFORMATION:

Terms of license or link to license terms: http://www.apa.org/about/contact/copyright/index.aspx

American Psychological Association

Knowledge Models Used

About

The American Psychological Association is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States. APA is the world’s largest association of psychologists, with nearly 130,000 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students as its members.

Our mission is to advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people’s lives. We do this by:

  • Encouraging the development and application of psychology in the broadest manner.
  • Promoting research in psychology, the improvement of research methods and conditions and the application of research findings.
  • Improving the qualifications and usefulness of psychologists by establishing high standards of ethics, conduct, education and achievement.
  • Increasing and disseminating psychological knowledge through meetings, professional contacts, reports, papers, discussions and publications.

Contact:

ACM Computing Classification System (CCS)

Short Description

ACM has published a de facto standard taxonomy for classifying and indexing computing literature and researchers’ areas of expertise since the 1960s. The CCS underwent a major overhaul in 1982 with substantive updates in 1998 and 2012.

The 2012 CCS was created by group of 120 ACM volunteers, a third of them ACM Fellows, who collaborated with ACM Staff and with Semedica, a Division of Silverchair.

The Update Project was led by Professor Zvi Kedem of NYU who served as its Editor-in-Chief, working closely with Bernard Rous, ACM Director of Publications.

The 2012 ACM Computing Classification System has been developed as a poly-hierarchical ontology that can be utilized in semantic web applications. It relies on a semantic vocabulary as the single source of categories and concepts that reflect the state of the art of the computing discipline and is receptive to structural change as it evolves in the future.

ACM has provided tools to facilitate the application of 2012 CCS categories to forthcoming papers.

URL OF KNOWLEDGE MODEL:

http://dl.acm.org/ccs.cfm

The full CCS classification tree is freely available for educational and research purposes in these downloadable formats: SKOS (xml), Word, and HTML. In the ACM Digital Library, the CCS is presented in a visual display format that facilitates navigation and feedback. The full CCS classification tree is also viewable as a flat file in the Digital Library.

 OWNED/DEVELOPED BY:

  1. Owner: ACM
  2. Developer: ACM-Semedica
  3. Technical Contact: Bernard Rous (rous [at] @hq.acm.org)
  4. License Contact: Deborah Cotton (cotton [at] hq.acm.org)

ADOPTED BY:

Various libraries, companies, and publishers such as Springer, IEEE, and Emerald have made use of the ACM CCS.

 HOW IS THIS KM APPLIED?

  1. ACM articles are generally indexed manually. Auto-tagging software is being evaluated.
  2. Index terms are applied by ACM authors and by professional indexers.
  3. A map of the 1998 CCS to the 2012 version has been built and automatically run against all articles in the ACM Digital Library. Both the 1998 and 2012 sets of concepts are available on Citation Pages of all indexed articles at this time.
  4. In displays of Article Citation Page under “Index Terms” tab. (See: 1145/1963190.1963191)
  5. In tag cloud displays of topics covered by specific publications (See: http://dl.acm.org/pub.cfm?id=J401) or Special Interest Groups (See: http://dl.acm.org/sig.cfm?id=SP923) or Institutional Profile pages (See: http://dl.acm.org/inst_page.cfm?id=60022148)
  6. CCS subjects are included in the index for Simple Search
  7. CCS subjects are directly searchable in Advanced Search. See left bottom of page: http://dl.acm.org/advsearch.cfm
  8. CCS subjects are themselves clickable to return papers indexed by those concepts
  9. CCS subjects are currently displayed on Author Profiles pages under Subject Areas. (See: http://dl.acm.org/author_page.cfm?id=81100246710)

DESCRIPTION OF FUTURE/POTENTIAL USE CASES OF THE KM (NOT YET REALIZED)

ACM is building a community and people-oriented search where the primary objects returned are experts, their attributes, and their contextual relationships. Published works will become attributes of the author (rather than the primary object of bibliographic search where authors are attributes of the published.) One clear use of the CCS in this new facility is the direct and immediate ability to discover people who are expert in one of the defined subject areas; to order them by their impact in that area; and display their working relationships.

Additionally, the 2012 CCS is only partially deployed in the ACM Digital Library today. Sections of the ACM DL still rely on the 1998 version of the CCS.

 WHAT ARE THE MAIN GOALS FOR USING THIS KM?

To enable efficient and precise discovery and exploration of topics

The ACM CCS is a hierarchical taxonomy. It is designed to provide a cognitive map of the computing space from the most general subject areas to the most specific topics.

RATIONALE FOR KM VS OTHER MEANS OF SEARCHING AND BROWSING?

When speaking of taxonomies in computer science circles, the question is often asked “Why bother? Taxonomies are antiquated; Google renders them unnecessary; and the ACM CCS is not used by anyone other than authors who are required to index their ACM articles with it, much to their irritation.”

There are certainly camps within the Information Retrieval community on this issue; one tends to dismiss the usefulness of taxonomies in today’s world while another sees them as powerful and with growing application. In the scientific, technical, and medical (STM) publishing domain, the taxonomic approach to semantic classification is booming — with publishers using taxonomy to allow users to cross-cut content topically, increasing application usage.

CCS searches in the ACM Digital Library have been a relatively small percentage of total searches. Yet some part of the user community finds the CCS very useful in search. Despite the fact that direct searching on CCS subject categories is not highly visible (being found rather cryptically at the bottom left of the Advanced Search page (http://portal.acm.org/advsearch.cfm), the annual number of CCS searches launched in the ACM DL is still about half a million. Adjustments in the Digital Library user interface to promote the CCS as a retrieval tool should multiply this number many fold.

Many scholarly publishers in the scientific, technical, and medical fields are making use of taxonomic classification to create topic collections and virtual journals that dynamically rebuild as new content is added.

ACM efforts to derive topical visualizations from our full-text index proved inferior to those derived from taxonomic terms. Using author-supplied keywords (which are not selected from a controlled vocabulary) was somewhat better but also proved inferior.

Google-type searching appears best suited to directed searches where the user knows exactly what he is looking for. Google supplies almost total recall and the user supplies the precision. For more general subject exploration and discovery purposes, the searches do not work quite as well. And the page-ranking algorithm itself skews results by defining relevance in terms of popularity. Finally, it should be noted that Google is well aware of how its indexes are enhanced by structured, fielded data leading to improved precision in searches; that is why Google Scholar at least has tried to make arrangements with all the publishers whose sites it crawls to provide specific standard meta-tagging. Most publishers, including ACM, have complied in their indexing agreements with Google Scholar.

Lastly, a robust up-to-date taxonomy provides a cognitive map of the discipline. This in itself can be useful in understanding what computer science is all about; where a specific area of concentration fits within the broader discipline; and in development of curricula.

IS THE KM BEING ACTIVELY DEVELOPED?

Yes. The ACM CCS itself is evolving along with its deployment.

 LICENSE INFORMATION:

The full CCS classification tree is freely available for educational and research purposes in these downloadable formats: SKOS (xml), Word, and HTML.

For commercial use, please write cotton [at] hq.acm.org

ACM (Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.)

Knowledge Models Used:

 About

ACM is widely recognized as the premier membership organization for computing professionals, delivering resources that advance computing as a science and a profession; enable professional development; and promote policies and research that benefit society.

ACM hosts the computing industry’s leading Digital Library, and serves its global members and the computing profession with journals and magazines, conferences, workshops, electronic forums, and Learning Center.

Knowledge Models Used:

Contact:

  • Bernard Rous, ACM Director of Publications, rous [at] hq.acm.org
  • http://www.acm.org/

Taylor & Francis Group

Knowledge Models Used:

To follow…

URL:

http://www.tandfonline.com/

Short Description:

Taylor & Francis Group publishes more than 1,800 journals and over 4,000 new books each year, with a books backlist in excess of 60,000 specialist titles. We are providers of quality information made available through our dedicated platforms Taylor & Francis Online, Taylor & Francis eBooks and CRCnetBASE, disseminating knowledge that enables our customers to perform their jobs efficiently, enhance their education, and help contribute to the advancement of their chosen market sectors.

Our aim is to facilitate discovery and allow our users to access relevant research and information quickly and easily, wherever they are.

Our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioral Sciences, Science, Technology and Medicine, and we are one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, eBooks, text books and reference works, publishing under the imprints Taylor & Francis, Routledge, CRC Press, Garland Science, Psychology Press, and Focal Press.

Contact:

Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

Short Description:

The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics thesauri into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships.

URL:

http://astrothesaurus.org/

Owned/Developed by:

  1. Name of Owner: American Astronomical Society, http://aas.org/
  2. Name of Developer:  Katie Frey, ADS, https://groups.google.com/d/forum/uat-users

Adopted (as opposed to owned) by organizations/publishers:

IOP Publishing intend to use this for auto-indexing of images in the the AAS Astronomy Image Explorer and for indexing content on IOPsience journals and books platform.

Is the KM being actively developed?

  1. Yes by ADS and the Astronomy Community, http://astrothesaurus.org/

License information:

  1. Name of License
  2. Terms of license or link to license terms

PLOS Thesaurus

Short Description:

The Subject Areas belong to a thesaurus of over 10,000 terms initially built for us over the course of 2012 by Access Innovations. The 2012 thesaurus was based on the controlled vocabulary of classification terms that had been in use in PLOS Editorial Manager augmented by a specialist Science, Technology, Engineering and Medicine thesaurus built by Access Innovations. The entire corpus of PLOS articles was analysed to ensure that the thesaurus covers the research domain comprehensively.

URL:

GitHub: https://github.com/PLOS/plos-thesaurus

Owned/Developed by:

  1. Name of Developer:  Rachel Drysdale  gro.s1498380406olp@e1498380406ladsy1498380406rdr1498380406

How is this KM used?

Machine Aided Indexing (MAI)
e.g. PLOS One: http://www.plosone.org/taxonomy

License information:

https://github.com/PLOS/plos-thesaurus

IOP Thesaurus

Short Description:

The IOP thesaurus is a collection of ca. 6000 terms describing concepts in physics and related areas.

URL:

The model is not currently available externally.

Owned/Developed by:

  1. Name of Owner:   IOP Publishing Ltd
  2. Name of Developer:  Michael Roberts, *protected email*
  3. Technical Contact:   Michael Roberts, *protected email*
  4. License Contact:   Not applicable

Adopted (as opposed to owned) by organizations/publishers:
How is this KM applied?

IOP Publishing, applied manually and through auto-tagging software (Luxid/TEMIS),  Editorial Staff and Referees

How is this KM used?

Not currently in production use for semantic enrichment.

Description of the current use case(s) of the KM

Used for indexing of referees, within ScholarOne Manuscripts.

Description of the future/potential use cases of the KM (not yet realized)

Faceted search, display of further relevant content, key-word driven advertising.

What are the main goals for using this KM?

  1. Improve service to readers on IOPscience
  2. Enhance UX
  3. Increase Search Engine Ranking
  4. Increase time user spends on site
  5. Increase traffic
  6. Increase downloads
  7. New opportunities for innovation

Rationale for KM vs other means of searching and browsing?

As the IOP thesaurus describes relationships between topics as well as providing keywords, it provides a powerful mechanism for determining relevant content and search faceting not available through statistical approaches. The machine-based indexing approach ensures consistency across the corpus, avoiding human bias in applying keywords.

Is the KM being actively developed?

Yes, internally

License information:

KM is not currently available to license

SNOMED CT

Short Description:

SNOMED CT is an extensive clinical terminology that was formed by the merger, expansion, and restructuring of SNOMED RT® (Reference Terminology) and the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) Clinical Terms (also known as the Read Codes). It is the most comprehensive clinical vocabulary available in English (or any language). SNOMED CT is concept-oriented and has an advanced structure that meets most accepted criteria for a well-formed, machine-readable terminology. It has been designated as a US standard for electronic health information exchange in Interoperability Specifications produced by the Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel and has also been adopted for use by the US Federal Government, through the Consolidated Health Informatics (CHI) Initiative, for several clinical domains

URL:

http://download.nlm.nih.gov/umls/kss/IHTSDO20140731/SnomedCT_Release_INT_20140731.zip

Owned/Developed by:

  1. Name of Owner:   International Health Terminology Standards Organisation (IHTSDO)
  2. Name of Developer:    International Health Terminology Standards Organisation (IHTSDO) originally developed by College of American Pathologists (CAP)
  3. Technical Contact:   gro.o1498380406dsthi1498380406@trop1498380406pus1498380406
  4. License Contact:   gro.o1498380406dsthi1498380406@trop1498380406pus1498380406

Adopted (as opposed to owned) by organizations/publishers:

Wiley in autotagging software

How is this KM used?

Description of the current use case(s) of the KM

Description of the future/potential use cases of the KM (not yet realized)

What are the main goals for using this KM?

Rationale for KM vs other means of searching and browsing?

Please describe the added-value that the KM delivers in comparison to “standard” full-text search indexes, author-supplied keywords or automated on-the-fly generation of topics based on purely statistical information.

Is the KM being actively developed?

Yes

License information:

See http://ihtsdo.org/licensing/